Podman

Manage pods, containers, and container images.

This project is maintained by the containers organization.

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Podman Installation Instructions

Installing packaged versions of Podman

Arch Linux & Manjaro Linux

sudo pacman -S podman

If you have problems when running Podman in rootless mode follow the instructions here

Fedora, CentOS

sudo yum -y install podman

Fedora-CoreOS, Fedora SilverBlue

Built-in, no need to install

Gentoo

sudo emerge app-emulation/libpod

MacOS

Using Homebrew:

brew cask install podman

openSUSE

sudo zypper install podman

openSUSE Kubic

Built-in, no need to install

RHEL7

Subscribe, then enable Extras channel and install Podman.

sudo subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-7-server-extras-rpms
sudo yum -y install podman

RHEL8 Beta

sudo yum module enable -y container-tools:1.0
sudo yum module install -y container-tools:1.0

Installing development versions of Podman

Ubuntu

The latest builds are available in a PPA. Take note of the Build and Run Dependencies listed below if you run into any issues.

sudo apt-get update -qq
sudo apt-get install -qq -y software-properties-common uidmap
sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:projectatomic/ppa
sudo apt-get update -qq
sudo apt-get -qq -y install podman

Fedora

You can test the very latest Podman in Fedora’s updates-testing repository before it goes out to all Fedora users.

sudo yum distro-sync --enablerepo=updates-testing podman

If you use a newer Podman package from Fedora’s updates-testing, we would appreciate your +1 feedback in Bodhi, Fedora’s update management system.

Building from scratch

Build and Run Dependencies

Required

Fedora, CentOS, RHEL, and related distributions:

sudo yum install -y \
  atomic-registries \
  btrfs-progs-devel \
  containernetworking-cni \
  device-mapper-devel \
  git \
  glib2-devel \
  glibc-devel \
  glibc-static \
  go \
  golang-github-cpuguy83-go-md2man \
  gpgme-devel \
  iptables \
  libassuan-devel \
  libgpg-error-devel \
  libseccomp-devel \
  libselinux-devel \
  make \
  ostree-devel \
  pkgconfig \
  runc \
  containers-common

Debian, Ubuntu, and related distributions:

sudo apt-get install \
  btrfs-tools \
  git \
  golang-go \
  go-md2man \
  iptables \
  libassuan-dev \
  libc6-dev \
  libdevmapper-dev \
  libglib2.0-dev \
  libgpgme-dev \
  libgpg-error-dev \
  libostree-dev \
  libprotobuf-dev \
  libprotobuf-c-dev \
  libseccomp-dev \
  libselinux1-dev \
  libsystemd-dev \
  pkg-config \
  runc \
  uidmap

On Manjaro (and maybe other Linux distributions):

Make sure that the Linux kernel supports user namespaces:

> zgrep CONFIG_USER_NS /proc/config.gz
CONFIG_USER_NS=y

If not, please update the kernel. For Manjaro Linux the instructions can be found here: https://wiki.manjaro.org/index.php/Manjaro_Kernels

After that enable user namespaces:

sudo sysctl kernel.unprivileged_userns_clone=1

To enable the user namespaces permanently:

echo 'kernel.unprivileged_userns_clone=1' > /etc/sysctl.d/userns.conf

Building missing dependencies

If any dependencies cannot be installed or are not sufficiently current, they have to be built from source. This will mainly affect Debian, Ubuntu, and related distributions, or RHEL where no subscription is active (e.g. Cloud VMs).

ostree

A copy of the development libraries for ostree is necessary, either in the form of the libostree-dev package from the flatpak PPA, or built from source (see also here). As of Ubuntu 18.04, libostree-dev is available in the main repositories, and the PPA is no longer required.

To build, use the following (running make can take a while):

git clone https://github.com/ostreedev/ostree ~/ostree
cd ~/ostree
git submodule update --init
# for Fedora, CentOS, RHEL
sudo yum install -y automake bison e2fsprogs-devel fuse-devel libtool xz-devel zlib-devel
# for Debian, Ubuntu etc.
sudo apt-get install -y automake bison e2fsprogs e2fslibs-dev fuse libfuse-dev libgpgme-dev liblzma-dev libtool zlib1g

./autogen.sh --prefix=/usr --libdir=/usr/lib64 --sysconfdir=/etc
# remove --nonet option due to https:/github.com/ostreedev/ostree/issues/1374
sed -i '/.*--nonet.*/d' ./Makefile-man.am
make
sudo make install

golang

Be careful to double-check that the version of golang is new enough (i.e. go version), version 1.10.x or higher is required. If needed, golang kits are available at https://golang.org/dl/. Alternatively, go can be built from source as follows (it’s helpful to leave the system-go installed, to avoid having to bootstrap go:

export GOPATH=~/go
git clone https://go.googlesource.com/go $GOPATH
cd $GOPATH
git checkout tags/go1.10.8  # optional
cd src
./all.bash
export PATH=$GOPATH/bin:$PATH

conmon

The latest version of conmon is expected to be installed on the system. Conmon is used to monitor OCI Runtimes. To build from source, use the following:

git clone https://github.com/containers/conmon
cd conmon
make
sudo make podman

runc

The latest version of runc is expected to be installed on the system. It is picked up as the default runtime by Podman. Version 1.0.0-rc4 is the minimal requirement, which is available in Ubuntu 18.04 already. To double-check, runc --version should produce at least spec: 1.0.1, otherwise build your own:

git clone https://github.com/opencontainers/runc.git $GOPATH/src/github.com/opencontainers/runc
cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/opencontainers/runc
make BUILDTAGS="selinux seccomp"
sudo cp runc /usr/bin/runc

CNI plugins

git clone https://github.com/containernetworking/plugins.git $GOPATH/src/github.com/containernetworking/plugins
cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/containernetworking/plugins
./build_linux.sh
sudo mkdir -p /usr/libexec/cni
sudo cp bin/* /usr/libexec/cni

Setup CNI networking

A proper description of setting up CNI networking is given in the cni README.

Using the CNI plugins from above, a more basic network config is achieved with:

sudo mkdir -p /etc/cni/net.d
curl -qsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/containers/libpod/master/cni/87-podman-bridge.conflist | sudo tee /etc/cni/net.d/99-loopback.conf

Add configuration

sudo mkdir -p /etc/containers
sudo curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/projectatomic/registries/master/registries.fedora -o /etc/containers/registries.conf
sudo curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/containers/skopeo/master/default-policy.json -o /etc/containers/policy.json

Optional packages

Fedora, CentOS, RHEL, and related distributions:

(no optional packages)

Debian, Ubuntu, and related distributions:

apt-get install -y \
  libapparmor-dev

Get Source Code

As with other Go projects, Podman must be cloned into a directory structure like:

GOPATH
└── src
    └── github.com
        └── containers
            └── libpod

First, ensure that the go version that is found first on the $PATH (in case you built your own; see above) is sufficiently recent - go version must be higher than 1.10.x). Then we can finally build Podman (assuming we already have a $GOPATH and the corresponding folder, export GOPATH=~/go && mkdir -p $GOPATH):

git clone https://github.com/containers/libpod/ $GOPATH/src/github.com/containers/libpod
cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/containers/libpod
make BUILDTAGS="selinux seccomp"
sudo make install PREFIX=/usr

Build Tags

Otherwise, if you do not want to build Podman with seccomp or selinux support you can add BUILDTAGS="" when running make.

make BUILDTAGS=""
sudo make install

Podman supports optional build tags for compiling support of various features. To add build tags to the make option the BUILDTAGS variable must be set, for example:

make BUILDTAGS='seccomp apparmor'
Build Tag Feature Dependency
apparmor apparmor support libapparmor
exclude_graphdriver_btrfs exclude btrfs libbtrfs
exclude_graphdriver_devicemapper exclude device-mapper libdm
libdm_no_deferred_remove exclude deferred removal in libdm libdm
ostree ostree support (requires selinux) ostree-1, libselinux
containers_image_ostree_stub exclude ostree  
seccomp syscall filtering libseccomp
selinux selinux process and mount labeling  
systemd journald logging libsystemd

Note that Podman does not officially support device-mapper. Thus, the exclude_graphdriver_devicemapper tag is mandatory.

Vendoring - Dependency Management

This project is using go modules for dependency management. If the CI is complaining about a pull request leaving behind an unclean state, it is very likely right about it. After changing dependencies, make sure to run make vendor to synchronize the code with the go module and repopulate the ./vendor directory.

Configuration files

registries.conf

Man Page: registries.conf.5

/etc/containers/registries.conf

registries.conf is the configuration file which specifies which container registries should be consulted when completing image names which do not include a registry or domain portion.

Example from the Fedora containers-common package

cat /etc/containers/registries.conf
# This is a system-wide configuration file used to
# keep track of registries for various container backends.
# It adheres to TOML format and does not support recursive
# lists of registries.

# The default location for this configuration file is /etc/containers/registries.conf.

# The only valid categories are: 'registries.search', 'registries.insecure',
# and 'registries.block'.

[registries.search]
registries = ['docker.io', 'registry.fedoraproject.org', 'quay.io', 'registry.access.redhat.com', 'registry.centos.org']

# If you need to access insecure registries, add the registry's fully-qualified name.
# An insecure registry is one that does not have a valid SSL certificate or only does HTTP.
[registries.insecure]
registries = []


# If you need to block pull access from a registry, uncomment the section below
# and add the registries fully-qualified name.
#
[registries.block]
registries = []

mounts.conf

/usr/share/containers/mounts.conf and optionally /etc/containers/mounts.conf

The mounts.conf files specify volume mount directories that are automatically mounted inside containers when executing the podman run or podman build commands. Container process can then use this content. The volume mount content does not get committed to the final image.

Usually these directories are used for passing secrets or credentials required by the package software to access remote package repositories.

For example, a mounts.conf with the line “/usr/share/rhel/secrets:/run/secrets”, the content of /usr/share/rhel/secrets directory is mounted on /run/secrets inside the container. This mountpoint allows Red Hat Enterprise Linux subscriptions from the host to be used within the container.

Note this is not a volume mount. The content of the volumes is copied into container storage, not bind mounted directly from the host.

Example from the Fedora containers-common package:

cat /usr/share/containers/mounts.conf
/usr/share/rhel/secrets:/run/secrets

seccomp.json

/usr/share/containers/seccomp.json

seccomp.json contains the whitelist of seccomp rules to be allowed inside of containers. This file is usually provided by the containers-common package.

The link above takes you to the seccomp.json

policy.json

/etc/containers/policy.json

Man Page: policy.json.5

Example from the Fedora containers-common package:

cat /etc/containers/policy.json
{
    "default": [
	{
	    "type": "insecureAcceptAnything"
	}
    ],
    "transports":
	{
	    "docker-daemon":
		{
		    "": [{"type":"insecureAcceptAnything"}]
		}
	}
}